Publication date: 1994-08, copyright, iEC 2018. For different purposes various sums and differences can be formed from the received energy. Here the antenna is derived in addition in an upper half and a lower half. The target fluctuation error is due to the cross-section changing of the target during the time-on-target of the antenna which gives a distortion of the envelope of the reflected pulse train.
Therefore it can operate at a much lower rate of hits per scan. Well, modern 3D- radar sets have at least four parallel receiver- channels. Figure 3: estimating of the angular position in older radars (not using a monopulse method). Monopulse radars find their origin in tracking systems.
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A crude way of determining angular position of a target is to move the antenna past the target direction and note the pointing direction that gives the maximum echo amplitude. The antenna pattern is given by the red and green area on the same figure. Figure 2: sectional picture of an antenna array of a monopulse antenna. Well, the procedure is used twice now. If the primary radiators of the monopulse antenna consist of feed horns, then the distribution of the received signals can be performed with a monopulse duplexer. This channel to the compensation of side lobes always has practically its own small antenna and has a very wide antenna diagram and also serves for the reconnaissance of active jamming.